Types of Migraine
Migraine headaches are a neurological condition that affects millions of people worldwide. They are characterized by intense and debilitating pain that is often accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, and sound.
There are several different types of migraines, each with its own unique set of symptoms and triggers. In this article, we will discuss the various types of migraines and what distinguishes them from each other.
Migraine is a common condition globally because it is a neurological disorder that affects a significant portion of the population. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is the third most common disease in the world, with an estimated 1 in 7 people suffering from migraine globally.
There are several factors that contribute to the high prevalence of migraine worldwide. One of the main reasons is genetics. Migraine tends to run in families, and some people are more predisposed to developing the condition than others. Environmental factors such as stress, sleep disturbances, and dietary triggers can also increase the risk of developing migraines.
Additionally, certain medications, hormonal changes, and other underlying medical conditions may trigger migraines. The diagnosis of types of migraines has become more accurate in recent years, which has led to a higher reported prevalence. Increased awareness and education about migraines may also contribute to the perception that the condition is more common than it used to be.
Types of Migraine
Migraine with Aura
Migraine with aura, also known as classic migraine, is a type of migraine that is characterized by sensory disturbances that occur before the onset of the headache. These disturbances can include visual disturbances such as flashing lights, blind spots, or zigzag lines. Other symptoms may include tingling or numbness in the face, hands, or arms. The aura typically lasts between 20 and 60 minutes and is followed by the onset of a severe headache.
Migraine without Aura
Migraine without aura, also known as common migraine, is a type of migraine that occurs without any warning signs or sensory disturbances. This type of migraine is characterized by a moderate to severe headache that can last for hours or even days. Other symptoms may include sensitivity to light, sound, and smells, as well as nausea and vomiting.
Chronic migraine is a type of migraine that occurs on 15 or more days per month for at least three months. This type of migraine can be particularly debilitating and can significantly impact a person’s quality of life. Symptoms may include a headache that lasts for more than four hours per day, sensitivity to light and sound, nausea and vomiting, and difficulty concentrating.
Vestibular migraine is a type of migraine that is characterized by dizziness or vertigo. Other symptoms may include difficulty with balance and coordination, nausea and vomiting, and a sensitivity to light and sound. This type of migraine is thought to be related to the inner ear and may be triggered by changes in head position or motion.
Hemiplegic migraine is a rare and severe type of migraine that is characterized by temporary paralysis on one side of the body. Other symptoms may include difficulty speaking, vision changes, and confusion. This type of migraine can be particularly dangerous and may require urgent medical attention.
Menstrual migraine is a type of migraine that occurs in women during their menstrual cycle. This type of migraine is typically triggered by changes in hormones and can occur before, during, or after a woman’s period. Symptoms may include a severe headache, sensitivity to light and sound, nausea and vomiting, and mood changes.
Retinal migraine is a rare type of migraine that is characterized by temporary blindness or vision loss in one eye. Other symptoms may include headache, sensitivity to light and sound, and nausea and vomiting. This type of migraine is thought to be related to changes in blood flow to the eye.
Chronic Tension Headache
Chronic tension headache is a type of headache that occurs on 15 or more days per month for at least three months. This type of headache is characterized by a constant, dull ache that is typically felt on both sides of the head. Other symptoms may include sensitivity to light and sound, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.
Cluster headache is a type of headache that occurs in clusters, with frequent attacks over a period of several weeks or months. This type of headache is characterized by a severe, piercing pain that is typically felt on one side of the head. Other symptoms may include a runny or stuffy nose, watery eyes, and a sensitivity to light and sound.
This type of migraine is more common in children than adults and is characterized by stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting, rather than head pain.
This is a rare but severe type of migraine that can last for days or even weeks. It is characterized by intense head pain and other migraine symptoms, and can be difficult to treat.
This type of migraine occurs after a head injury or concussion, and can be triggered by physical or emotional stress.
This type of migraine affects vision in one eye and can cause temporary blindness or visual disturbances, such as flashing lights or blurred vision.
This type of migraine is caused by sinus inflammation and can be accompanied by symptoms such as facial pressure, congestion, and post-nasal drip.
Benign Exertional Headache
This type of headache is triggered by physical activity, such as exercise, and can be similar to a migraine in terms of symptoms and severity. It’s important to note that there are many different types of migraines, and each person’s experience with migraines may be unique. A healthcare provider can help diagnose and manage migraines based on an individual’s specific symptoms and medical history.
Overall, migraine is a complex and multifactorial condition that affects people worldwide, and further research is needed to better understand the underlying causes and potential treatments.